Swedish version





to worldwide entomologists and friends for their contribution, assistance, advice, corrections, encouragement etc.


     My sincere thanks to Dr Dieter BeitenAlexei Belik, Gerd Bentz, Yuri Berezhnoi,   Larry D Beutler, Anton Biryukov, Fabrizio Bortolussi, Roger Bovaere, Frédéric Carbonell, Moltýkár Castelpul, Sergei Churkin, Simon Coombes, Oskar Dorfmann (†), Alfonso Corraleño, Franco Crespi, Hans Degler (†), Jean Pierre Dhondt, Jostein B. Engdahl, Vernon Evans Otto Feldner, Teocados G Felí,  Robert Goodden, Marc Grinnell, Jan Hadac, Jean Hanus, Sune Hauch, Dr Peter Henkele, Earl Hooke (†)Akira Hoshino, Martin Jagelka, Stanislav Korb, Oleg Kosterin, Maxim Markhasiov,  Dr Gerhard Merk, Masamitsu Mori, Kuniomi Matsumoto, Lennart Medquist, Kunio Mise, Uberto Nardelli,  Robert Nash, Tomio Nemoto,  Jacques Nieszporek, Dr Oktay Onaran, Dr Paul A Opler, Dr Ilya Osipov, Jorge Paclawsky (†), Vladimir Paulus, Tero Piirainen, Manuel del Pino, Juhani Pitkänen, Dr Ather Rafi, Auro Rambelli, John Reichel (†)Oz RittnerDr Giovanni Sala, Jouko Salmela,  Markku Savela,  Dick Schoenberger, Dr Adolf Schulte (†), Dr Karl Segl,  Göran SjöbergJan V. SlamaDmitriy SobaninBenoit Soyez, Ralph Sturm, Prof. Andrew V. Timshenko, Stephan R Treadway, Denis Tumanov, Jaroslav A. Vanek (†), Robert R Westphal, Pierre Willien, Cheng Xing,  Roman Yakovlev, Dr Nathalie Yonow and Milan Zubrik for their contribution to my website. 

     If you can contribute to make my Parnassius website more complete or you have any other comments, please Email me. This site will take some time to download.  Still I hope it is worth seeing. Welcome to watch the pages! 

(To prevent commercial netfishing the @ sign in Email addresses is substituted with %20at%20)


"The snow butterflies of the mountains"


     Linnaeus named the Papilionidae butterflies the Knights.  The Knights he divided into two parts, in Latin:  Equites Troes and Equites Achivi (Trojan Knights and Greek Knights). This division no longer is actual but the Papilionidae name as well as Knights are still accepted for this order of Rhopalocera
(day flying) butterflies.

     Parnassius butterflies belong to a family within the Papilionidae. 

     Two species of the Parnassius butterfly family were named by Linnaeus in Systema Naturae, 1758, namely  Parnassius apollo and Parnassius mnemosyne. The first of these he encountered on the island of Gotland, Sweden, in 1741 and the second, Parnassius mnemosyne was later described from Finland.

     Linnaeus did not include apollo and mnemosyne in the order of Greek or Trojan Knights: in this he was mistaken. Later the Parnassius species were found to be an order of the Knights.

     The  IUCN Red Data Book (1985) lists  in total 573 species of Papilionidae.

     The Parnassius family included in 1985  53 species, but some still have a doubtful species status and new species have also been discovered, mostly in mountainous areas of Central Asia. The latest species of Parnassius to be described was discovered in Kirghizia in 2005. 


    I would like to display my work mainly in two parts.  One will show the extension of distribution of the species Parnassius apollo into most of Scandinavia, and the second will provide information about all Parnassius species found

   A number of entomologists and naturalists will be presented, starting with Linnaeus himself and his disciples.  Also development and change of Entomology and Natural Science from Aristotle until our days will be discussed. Unfortunately some pages are available in Swedish only. 


 Parnassius species of the world   
 Parnassius apollo of Scandinavia 
  Parnassius apollo pics 
 Parnassius of North America
 Entomologists and naturalists

 Books by Sten Nord/Böcker av Sten Nord

 Virserum map
 Christers Bilmekk
 Fyra S   
 Old Virserum photographs
 Internet Worldmap

 Papilionidae of Pakistan

 Waldeck oil painting samples

 Isla Margarita february 2006 

 Photo gallery 2004 

 Photo gallery 2005

 Photo gallery 2006 

 Photo gallery 2007 

 Photo gallery 2008 

  Photo gallery 2009 



  Important facta on phylogeny and identification of Parnassiinae at Wikipedia  
 Entomological Associations
 Entomologiska föreningen i Uppland

 Birdwings of the World
 The Lepidopterists Society
 Colour Atlas of the Siberian Lepidoptera
 Laurent's Butterfly & Moth collection
 Collector's Secret
 Delias of the World
  Ilya Osipov´s Russian Butterflies
 The Entomological Society of  South-East Sweden 
  Swallowtails of the World
 Finnish informative site on Parnassius
 Excellent butterfly database
 Bulgarian site about Carolus Linnaeus
  Local butterflies of the world - informative links
  Captain´s European Butterfly Guide
 Worldwide Butterflies
 Museo Entomologico del Mundo
 The Butterflies of Indo-China
 Butterflies - on the wings of freedom
 Japanese Butterfly Gallery
 Insects and Lepidoptera
 Entomological links
  Trapper Arne's Homepage

  Les Lépidoptéristes de France


  Languages of the World


 Don Gerardo


                                    John Hron 1981-1995

                                     Iqbal Masih 1982-1995

                                    Karla Faye Tucker Brown 1959-1998

TheButterflySite.com Award

Awarded by 
The Butterfly Site

This Butterfly Ring site is owned by Göran Waldeck
Want to join the Butterfly Ring?
Skip Prev PrevNextSkip Next RandomNext 5 List Sites


free counters
Free counters

Last updated Sept 8, 2009

Copyright © 2012 Göran Waldeck   All rights reserved